Tetsunori Koizumi, Director
As the threat of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread around the world, claiming many human lives, scientists as well as the rest of us are now paying more attention to our relationship with viruses on our planet. Virologists whose specialty is to study viruses tell us that viruses are the most numerous biological entities on Earth. It is estimated that there are 10 nonillion (1031) viruses on Earth, which are to be found in almost every ecosystem—in the atmosphere, in the oceans, and in the soil. According to Professor Curtis Suttle of University of British Columbia, looking at the number of viruses in the oceans alone, viruses outnumber stars by a factor of 10 million.1 Given such over abundance of viruses on Earth, it is not surprising that one science writer was prompted to write a book with the title of A Planet of Viruses.2
Viruses are regarded as biological entities because they carry genetic material, some using DNA, some RNA, and some both to pass on genetic information during their life cycle. While we tend to focus our attention on those viruses that cause the flu, Ebola, SARS and other diseases among humans, viruses are also known to play an important part in evolution. As a matter of fact, viruses have been a part of human lives for so long that we are actually part viruses, with the human genome containing more DNA from viruses than our own genes. And viruses also bring benefits to humans. As Dirk Schultze-Makuch, a Professor at Technical University Berlin, puts it: “Most of the genetic information on Earth probably resides within them, and viruses are important for transferring genes between different species, increasing genetic diversity and ultimately enhancing evolution and the adaptation of various organisms to new environmental challenges.”3
Given that viruses cause diseases in humans as well as confer benefits to humans, what should our attitude be towards them? Answering this question is not as simple as conquering the enemy on the battlefield, which is what President Macron suggested to do in his televised address to the French people on March 16 to fight the invisible enemy SARS-CoV-2, which is the seventh coronavirus to infect humans. For one thing, it is not just that the enemy is invisible to our naked eye, but it is also that there are so many of them. For another, there is no consensus among scientists as to whether viruses are life forms or not. Viruses, though they possess genes and evolve by natural selection, cannot reproduce themselves as they lack their own metabolism and cell structure. Hence, they need host cells for reproduction, and thus infect all types of life forms—animals and plants—as their hosts to replicate themselves. In the sense that they depend on other life forms for their reproduction, viruses are widely entangled in the web of life that keeps evolving on our Planet Earth.
If viruses are widely entangled in the web of life that keeps evolving on our Planet Erath, what should our attitude be towards them as Buddhist practitioners? The answer depends on whether viruses are “sentient beings” from the Buddhist perspective. Are viruses, then, sentient beings? The following statement by the Dalai Lama gives us a hint to answer this question: “In Buddhism, since the definition of ‘living’ refers to sentient beings, consciousness is the primary characteristic of ‘life’.”4 From the Buddhist perspective, we can thus say that viruses are not sentient beings, meaning that they are not objects of our metta, or loving-kindness. Yet, as the most numerous biological entities in the living environment around us, there is no question that viruses are our fellow passengers on Spaceship Earth that navigates itself in the vast ocean of cosmic evolution.
To the extent that viruses are our fellow passengers on Spaceship Earth that co-evolve with all sentient beings including humans, we need to treat them as objects of our ksanti, or patience, which is the third of the Six Paramitas. As Master Sheng Yen explains in his commentary on the Six Paramitas, “There are three ways to practice patience: patience with those who wish to harm us, patience with regard to the environment, and patience in enduring the dharmas. If we do not respond in a harmful way when confronted by those who wish to harm us, we can avoid hurting others and ourselves. … Patience with regard to the environment means enduring pain and difficulty when faced with natural calamities. … Patient endurance of all dharmas is regarding all phenomena, including our own experiences of pleasure and pain, as having the nature of emptiness—that all dharmas lack independent self.”5
As non-sentient beings, viruses may not be conscious of the harm they do to us humans. Yet viruses are dharmas, or sankharas, as much as we humans are. Lynn Margulis, an American evolutionary biologist known for her theory of endosymbiosis, concurs with this Buddhist view when she says: “We can no more be cured of our viruses than we can be relieved of our brains’ frontal lobes: We are our viruses.”6 Given that we are our viruses, it is now clear what our attitudes should be towards viruses as Buddhist practitioners. To the extent that viruses are dhammas, or sankharas that possess genes to pass on genetic information, the following words of the Buddha give us a guidance as to what our attitude should be towards viruses: “When through wisdom one perceives, ‘all sankharas are transient,’ then one is detached as to misery. This is the path of purity. When through wisdom one perceives, ‘all sankharas are suffering,’ then one is detached as to misery. This is the path of purity. When through wisdom one perceives, ‘all dhammas are without self,’ then one is detached as to misery. This is the path of purity.”7 Some of us may lose our loves ones to the novel coronavirus. Ultimately, however, we Buddhist practitioners need to always remind ourselves of the true reality of our existence in this world, which the Buddha expounded as the Four Noble Truths in his first discourse at the deer park in Isipatana.
- Suttle, Curtis A., “Do Viruses Control the Oceans?” Natural History, Vol. 108, 1999.
- Carl Zimmer, A Planet of Viruses, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.
- Schultze-Makuch, Dirk, “There are more viruses on Earth than there are stars in the universe”, https:// www.airspacemag.com, March 17, 2020.
- The Dalai Lama, The Universe in a Single Atom, New York: Morgan Road Books, 2005, Chapter 5.
- Master Sheng Yen, The Six Paramitas, Elmhurst, New York: Dharma Drum Publications, 2001, pp. 21-24.
- To see the context in which this statement is made, see, for example, Carrie Arnold, “The Viruses That Made Us Human”, NOVA, September 28, 2016.
- The Dhammapada, Chapter XX: 277, 278, 279, New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.