Direct experience as the pathway to knowledge and enlightenment

Tetsunori Koizumi, Director

Is Buddhism a science? Although it is conventionally classified as a religion, Buddhism is a science in the sense that knowing about the truth of the world around us is a primary motivation of its practitioners. However, Buddhism diverges from science in at least two respects: the method of inquiry and the use of knowledge acquired. In science, observation, logical reasoning, and experiment are regarded as among the essential components of its method of inquiry, as Richard Feynman (1918-1988), an American physicist known for his work on quantum electrodynamics, puts it succinctly: “Observation, reason, and experiment make up what we call the scientific method.”1 In Buddhism, direct experience is regarded as the most essential, if not the only, component of its method of inquiry for its practitioners in getting access to and confirming the truth of the world around us. As for the use of knowledge acquired, scientific knowledge, while unveiling the mysteries of the world around us, often ends up changing that world, when knowledge is translated into technologies or social policies. Knowledge acquired by Buddhist practitioners, on the other hand, is employed to liberate them from the reality of the world.

Maintaining objectivity is the value most highly regarded by the community of scientists in their endeavors. This is the reason why experiment must be replicable by other researchers before the scientific community accepts the validity of a theory about how a specific phenomenon comes about. While experiment can be replicated when other researchers create the same controlled environment, direct experience is almost always subjective, even when a group of individuals shares an experience in the same environment. If direct experience is indeed subjective and difficult to replicate, it is unlikely that the scientific community will accept it as a valid method of acquiring knowledge of the world around us. Does this mean that there is no place for direct experience in the scientific search for the truth of the world around us? What if insight obtained by direct experience suggests a theory about the world that can potentially be tested by the scientific method? Is this not indeed the case, for example, with the Buddha’s idea of paticca-samuppada, or “dependent origination”, which apparently contains valid insight into the reality of the world around us? If so, what does the Buddha mean when he talks about direct experience? What exactly does direct experience entail as the method of acquiring knowledge of the world around us?

The fact that his teachings are mostly about achieving personal liberation and enlightenment explains, to some extent, why the Buddha favors direct experience above all other possible methods of knowledge acquisition. In fact, the Buddha is so adamant about the value of direct experience that he appears to reject all other possible methods, as we see in his discourse known as the Kalama Sutta: “Come, Kalamas. Do not go by oral tradition, by lineage of teaching, by hearsay, by a collection of texts, by logic, by inferential reasoning, by reasoned cogitation, by the acceptance of a view after pondering it, by the seeming competence of a speaker, or because you think, ‘The ascetic is our teacher.’”2 Why does the Buddha reject all these methods, including logic and inferential reasoning, which are accepted as valid methods and, therefore, employed by scientists? The reason seems to be that any one of these methods may turn out in “two different ways”, as the Buddha explains in the Canki Sutta: “There are five things, Bharadvaja, that may turn out in two different ways here and now. What five? Faith, approval, oral tradition, reasoned cognition, and acceptance of a view as a result of pondering it.”3 What the Buddha means by “two different ways” is that any one of these five methods can lead to a conclusion that is “factual, true, and unmistaken”, but it can also lead to a conclusion that is “empty, hollow, and false”. Having rejected all these other methods of inquiry, it is natural that the Buddha finally comes down to direct experience as the only reliable guide to knowledge acquisition: “when you know for yourselves” is the way the Buddha puts it, whatever may be the object of inquiry and understanding.

What must direct experience entail if it is to lead to objective knowledge of the world around us? For the Buddha, it is the method of deep meditation that directly leads to knowledge as he explains in the Mahasaccaka Sutta: “When my mind was thus concentrated, purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is suffering. This is the origin of suffering. This is the cessation of suffering. This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’”4 These words show that it is indeed the Buddha’s direct experience that was behind his discovery of the Four Noble Truths (Cattari Ariyasaccani).

If replication is a test of objectivity, it is necessary for knowledge obtained through such deep meditation to be obtainable by others employing the same method of deep meditation. How is that really possible? How can we verify that knowledge obtained by one practitioner is the same as that obtained by another practitioner?

As long as direct experience remains personal and subjective, the question of verifiability presents an intellectual dilemma. Even materialists, who claim that the mind does not exist as a separate entity from the brain, would find it difficult to ascertain which specific configuration of neurons in the brain is involved in a specific type of mental activity that leads to knowledge of a specific aspect of reality. Functionalists appear to have a better shot at resolving this dilemma in the sense that the mind, to them, is the software as opposed to the hardware, which is the brain. What is important, in their view, is the program that specifies the way the hardware functions. Different computers will yield the same outcome—the same solution to a given set of equations, for example—to the extent that the same program is employed. Does this mean that a specific sequence of guidelines suggested for meditation is like a specific computer program that can be followed by different practitioners to get to the same knowledge of the world around us and, eventually, to the Dhamma, the “ultimate truth”, which the Buddha characterizes in the Ariyapariyesana Sutta as “profound, hard to see and hard to understand”5?

At least two insights from modern science lead us to believe that the mind is potentially capable of arriving at the Dhamma. One insight comes from evolutionary theory, which suggests that the mind, like all the other things in the universe, is a product of evolution. As such, we expect the mind, as a composite entity, to not only embody but also reflect all the conditions and factors that have gone into generating it. The other insight comes from quantum mechanics, which points to an intimate connection that exists between the world around us and the mind of the observer who studies the physical processes in that world, as implied by the “uncertainty principle” formulated by Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976). These insights combined point to the idea that the evolution of the universe, or cosmic evolution, is not just a physical process but a mental process as well, in which all entities, factors, and things in the universe, including ourselves, are intimately interconnected and interdependent. This is nothing but the Buddha’s idea of paticca-samuppada, which is usually translated as “dependent origination” in English.

As we are intimately interconnected and interdependent with all entities, factors, and things in the universe, we can never be detached and neutral observers of events and phenomena in the context of cosmic evolution. We can consciously participate in that evolution, and that is where direct experience comes in. In fact, engaging in meditation is one form of conscious participation in cosmic evolution, though physically our body is at rest. The Noble Eightfold Path (Ariya Atthangika Magga), as a composite of both mental and physical activities, suggests yet another form of conscious participation. Indeed, as recorded in the Samyutta Nikaya, the Buddha recounts his experience before reaching enlightenment as follows: “I followed that path (the Noble Eightfold Path) and by doing so I have directly known aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation. I have directly known birth … existence … clinging … craving … feeling … contact … the six sense bases … name-and-form … consciousness … volitional formations, their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation.”6 The Buddha asks us to question even his authority, telling us that “an inquirer, not knowing another’s mind, should make an investigation of the Tathagata in order to find out whether or not he is perfectly enlightened.”7 However, we, as practitioners, need to be supported by a faith that one day, we will be able to duplicate his direct experience of enlightenment ourselves, and that by consciously participating in the cosmic process unfolding around us, that big “Aha!” moment called “awakening” will also come to us.

  1. Feynman, Richard P., Six Easy Pieces, Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1995, p. 24.
  2. Bhikkhu Bodhi, In the Buddha’s Words: An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon, Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2005, p. 89.
  3. Ibid., p. 98.
  4. Ibid., p. 66
  5. Ibid., p. 69.
  6. Ibid., p. 69.
  7. Ibid., p. 94.

Playing the numbers game with the Buddha

Tetsunori Koizumi, Director

As a legendary teacher, the Buddha employs many heuristic devices such as metaphors, similes, and stories in his discourses in order to make his ideas intelligible to monks as well as laypeople. The well-known story about “the blind men and the elephant” recorded in the Udana illustrates his effective use of a story in conveying a specific message—the message that one should not claim to have knowledge of anything unless and until one obtains the full picture of it. Indeed, the story carries a pertinent message even today for scientists who, looking only at fragmentary pictures of the world and clinging to the cherished dogmas of their narrow specialties, are “quarrelsome, disputatious, and wrangling, wounding each other with verbal darts”1, as the Buddha would characterize them.

One other heuristic device the Buddha employs quite often in his discourses is the use of numbers when his message contains a composite of multiple elements or requires his listeners to follow a sequence of steps. As a matter of fact, the Buddha’s very first discourse, known as the “The Setting-in-Motion of the Wheel of the Dhamma” (Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta), employs such a device in the form of the Four Noble Truths (Cattari Ariyasaccani) and the Noble Eightfold Path (Ariya Atthangika Magga), in which the numbers four and eight appear. The number four seems to have been one of his favorite numbers, judging from many examples in which this number appears such as: four elements, four lights, four kinds of nutriments, four kinds of confidence, four kinds of dissipation of wealth, four kinds of happiness, four kinds of kamma, four kinds of marriages, four things that lead to the welfare and happiness of a family man, four kinds of persons found existing in the world, four qualities a woman should possess, four classes of noble persons, four establishments of mindfulness, four factors leading to stream-entry, four things a stream-enterer possesses, four worthy deeds, and four wonderful things that appear on the manifestation of the Tathagata.

Considering that the Buddha touches on a wide range of topics intended for diverse audiences, it comes as no surprise that many other numbers besides the number four come up in his discourses. The number one appears when the Buddha tells his monks: “Monks, there is one person who arises in the world for the welfare of the multitude, for the happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the good, welfare, and happiness of devas and humans. Who is that one person? It is the Tathagata, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One.”2

The number two appears in the two kinds of search and two Nibbana elements. It also appears in the following examples: “Monks, I declare that there are two persons one can never repay. What two? One’s mother and father.”3 and “Two things, O monks, partake of true knowledge. What two? Serenity and insight.”4

The last two examples quoted, in which the Buddha asks, “What two?” set a pattern in which a specific number comes up in his discourses to draw the attention of his audience. Thus, he asks “What three?” in the following example: “There are, O monks, three ways of making merit. What three? There are ways of making merit by giving, by moral discipline, and by the development of meditation.”5 The number three also includes important examples that touch on the kernel of his teachings, such as: three unwholesome roots, which are lobha (greed), dosa (hatred) and moha (delusion), and three characteristics of existence, known as anicca (impermanence), dukkha (suffering) and anatta (non-self). Once the pattern is set up, the Buddha keeps adding numbers by asking: “What four?”, “What five?”, “What six?”, and so on.

The number five is a familiar number to Buddhist practitioners as it appears in the five precepts and the five aggregates. It also appears in such examples as five gifts of a superior person, five cords of sensual pleasure, five trades to be avoided, five spiritual faculties, and five kinds of non-returners. The number six appears in such examples as: six relationships, six directions, and six internal and external sense bases, and the number seven in such examples as: seven factors of enlightenment, seven kinds of noble persons, and seven kinds of wives. The last example about seven kinds of wives illustrates the amazing gift of the Buddha as a communicator as he gives advice to Sujata who, because of her pride as a person coming from a rich family, does not obey not only her father-in-law and mother-in-law but also her husband. Indeed, a family therapist today, while not agreeing with his choice of an ideal wife, can still obtain useful hints from the way the Buddha handles this case as he succeeds, in the end, in making Sujata accept her role as a handmaid, having told her about other kinds of wives she can be such as a slayer, a thief, a tyrant, a mother, a sister, and a friend.

The Buddha even employs several numbers in the same discourse. Thus, in his discourse on the mindfulness of breathing, the Buddha employs the numbers one, four, seven and two: “Concentration by mindfulness of breathing, Ananda, is the one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfills the four establishments of mindfulness. The four establishments of mindfulness, when developed and cultivated, fulfill the seven factors of enlightenment. The seven factors of enlightenment, when developed and cultivated, fulfill true knowledge and liberation.”6

The number eight, which appears in his first discourse on the Noble Eightfold Path, also appears in such examples as: eight persons worthy of gifts, eight reasons for giving, eight worldly conditions that keep the world turning around, and eight causes and conditions for obtaining the wisdom fundamental to the spiritual life. The number nine appears in “nine things an Arahant cannot do”, and the number ten in “ten powers of an Arahant monk”.

How high do the Buddha’s numbers go up? In the Anguttara Nikaya, in which the suttas are arranged according to the number of items discussed, the number goes up to eleven. In other Nikayas, the number goes up much higher. For example, the number forty-four appears in the following example in the Samyutta Nikaya: “Monks, I will teach you forty-four cases of knowledge. Listen to that and attend closely, I will speak.”7 His demand for close attention from monks is well justified in this case because many people—even his most devoted disciples, with the possible exception of Ananda—will have trouble learning and memorizing all forty-four cases.

Given his apparent fondness for using numbers, one wonders what number the Buddha would use to describe Nibbana, the attainment of which is the goal of practice for monks as well as his lay followers. Although he does talk about “thirty-three synonyms for Nibbana”, the number thirty-three, needless to say, would not capture what Nibbana is really like. Is Nibbana something that can be represented by any number at all? While the Buddha limits himself to natural numbers, or positive integers, when he employs numbers, there are other kinds of numbers available to us, including irrational numbers, transcendental numbers, and even imaginary numbers. Would any one of these irrational, transcendental, or imaginary numbers describe what Nibbana is like?

The problem here is that Nibbana is a concept whose meaning can only be described metaphorically with the use of synonyms, like the “thirty-three synonyms for Nibbana” mentioned above. That brings us to zero and infinity whose statuses as numbers have long been doubted because of their mysterious properties. Indeed, the number zero seems to capture some aspects of “emptiness” (sunyata), another key concept in the Buddha’s thought. What about infinity? Does it capture some aspects of Nibbana? As a matter of fact, the Buddha seems to have such a large, uncountable number in mind when he talks about eon: “An eon is long, monk. It is not easy to count it and say it is so many years, or so many hundreds of years, or so many thousands of years, or so many hundreds of thousands of years.”7

Talking about infinity actually leads us into a dilemma, for there exist many kinds of infinity, the realization of which once led Georg Cantor (1845-1918), a German mathematician known for his work on set theory, to believe that he was on the verge of discovering a way to Heaven. Is Nibbana like Heaven, then? Despite the prospect of being met with his disapproval, if not his rebuke, for playing the intellectual game with numbers, it is still tempting to ask the Buddha: “What number?”

  1. Bhikkhu Bodhi, In the Buddha’s Words: An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon, Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2005, p. 215.
  2. Ibid. p. 50.
  3. Ibid., p. 119.
  4. Ibid., p. 267.
  5. Ibid., P. 167.
  6. Ibid., p. 291
  7. Ibid., p. 355.
  8. Ibid., p. 38.